List of theories

Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve

The most important thinking process is memorization, which allows one to assimilate the volumes of necessary information. The problem is forgetting, the inability to reproduce the learned after some time.

The phenomenon was thoroughly studied by the psychologist from Germany H. Ebbinghaus. As early as 1885, after experimental studies, he derived a graph clearly representing all the laws of the process. A scienсе based on three letters and 2300 words. Words were arbitrary set, not carrying any meaning and semantic associations. In the process of research, the words were assimilated taking into account the time of memorization and the time of forgetting.

We studied the "pure memory", that is, the process of remembering, where thinking was not involved. That is why senseless syllables were used.

Ebbinghaus study results:

  • the largest amount of information is lost immediately in the period after memorization (up to 50% in the first half hour);
  • meaningful information is memorized faster (almost 9 times);
  • memorize data better in its entirety than in parts;
  • if you know that this material will be needed later (for work, for everyday life), then the information is remembered faster;
  • removing the "edge effect": the initial and final information is memorized faster;
  • if you add more repetitions, the speed of memorization does not increase, but on the contrary, decreases.

Based on the findings of the study, the scientist proposed an algorithm for solving the problem. The scheme is based on the repetition of the information received at certain time intervals:

  1. The first time the information is repeated immediately after perception, pronouncing aloud.
  2. The second repetition is in 20 minutes.
  3. The third time the information is repeated after 8 hours.
  4. The fourth time — in a day.

The scheme allows you to quickly learn the material for a short time.

For a long memorization, the scheme is similar, but there will be more lines:

  1. Repeat immediately.
  2. In 20-30 minutes.
  3. In one day.
  4. After 14 days
  5. In a month.

Ebbinghaus developed a number of recommendations for more successful memorization of information.

  1. Constant change in the specifics of the material issued ("trampling traces"). The alternation of the way of presenting information, themes.
  2. If you need to remember a large amount, special attention is paid to information in the central part. According to the “edge effect”, the beginning and the end are remembered well, and the middle is often “dropped out”.
  3. Giving information should be emotional. If that is absent, it is required to invent any interpretation, including a joke.

The method developed by the scientist was supplemented by the results of research by other specialists. Currently, the algorithm is actively used in various fields, for example, in the study of foreign languages ​​(the method of interval repetition).

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