Alfred Binet, French psychologist seeks to implement objective methods of research and, together with Theodore Simon develops the scale for assessment of the mental development of children with mental retardation. "The Binet - Simon scale of mental development " became the precursor of methodology for assessing the intelligence quotient (IQ) and the first serious test technology for the quantitative assessment of reasoning.
William Stern, child psychologist and one of the founders of modern psychodiagnostics finalizes Binet's methodology and introduces the characteristic of intelligence quotient (IQ) to measure child development instead of "mental age", proposed by Alfred Binet.
In the early 20-ies, L.S. Vygotsky developed the doctrine of the higher mental functions, which formed the basis of the work of his students and the development of the entire national psychology. Since the mid-40s, USSR meets the formation of the main practical methods of diagnosis and rehabilitation of patients who received brain damage - these developments formed the basis of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology is the branch of psychology that has been developed at the intersection of psychology, medicine and physiology. It studies brain mechanisms of higher mental functions with the material of local brain lesions. The founder of this direction was the A.R. Luria.
A new method of estimating the level of intellectual development was designed in 1938 by L. Penrose and J. Raven. The test was designed to capture the full range of logical and visual-figurative reasoning - from reasoning of young children and subjects with intellectual disabilities to the reasoning of adults and the elder people. Subjects were shown figures associated with each other by the relationship that had to be determined.
The emergence of the first test to measure intelligence of children, which was created by David Wechsler. Later, in 1955, the test was redesigned for adults. Today, it is the most popular research tool for intelligence quotient estimation. Many tasks from the test were redesigned and used as stand-alone exercises for development of cognitive functions.
The N-back task belongs to the class of Continuous performance tasks used in neurophysiology for assessment of working memory. The initial version of the task was suggested by Wayne Kirchner in 1958 to study age-related differences in the processing of the fast flow of information. Later, researchers have suggested the use of a task for the development of cognitive functions, the development of working memory and mental flexibility.
There was a book by George Miller, dedicated to working memory study, "The magic number 7 ± 2", which showed that the work of human memory is able to store about nine binary numbers at the average, eight decimals, seven alphabet letters and five monosyllabic words - that meant a person is able remember 7 ± 2 elements at the same time, and the memory capacity can be equated to 7 bits.
Paul Bach-y-Rita invents the BrainPort device, developing nonspecific parts of the brain and helping to recover lost brain function. This discovery has prompted a new look at the dynamics in the brain and has opened the study of of the brain neuroplasticity.
Corsi block task appeared in 1980, which allowed to explore the amount of working memory and its visual-spatial component. Th task was performed on a wooden egg capsules, which had to be selected in order of presentation. After adapting techniques to the computer, it has become one of the most famous games of memory development - it's a game - Memory matrices (Memory matrix).
V.A. Erickson and K.V. Ekrikson develop one of the most important tasks for testing visual attention - flanker task. The technique is used for studying the spatial characteristics of the direction, scope of visual attention and spatial interference in information processing.
For the first time the term Brain fitness appeared in the scientific and popular literature in the late 80s, and finally entered the lexicon of books on self-development after the publication of books Vernon Mark and Jeffrey Mark "Brain Power: A Neurosurgeon s Complete Program to Maintain and Enhance Brain Fitness Throughout Your Life" , 1989. and the book "Brain Fitness " M. Le Poncin-Lafitte, Monique Le Poncin and Michael Levine, 1990.
In 2005, Nintendo has launched the game for brain development called “Brain Age: Train Your Brain in minutes a day”. Brain Age offers a variety of puzzles and challenges, including techniques such as Stoop test, mathematical examples and puzzles and Sudoku, it was the first product of brain development of such scale.
Appearance of the first online training system for brain development.
A team of scientists from Moscow State University launches unique complex game simulators for brain development in summer of 2014.
More than 360 000 people are
training with BrainApps