IQ term appeared in 1912, and stood for intelligence quotient in the works of William Stern, German psychologist. The author used this term to define the results of tests on the level of intellectual development. During the period since the introduction of the term and to this day, there appeared a lot of techniques for the determination of the intelligence coefficient, many studies on this subject, collected the plenty of data containing IQ of numerous people.
Numerous theories exist within studies devoted to human intelligence. Raymond Cattell identified two intelligence types: flexible and “crystalized”. Meanwhile, Charles Spearman and Robert Sternberg identified 4 types, and Joe Guilford discerned 3 axes that can give up to 120 combinations of thinking patterns.
And consider other methods and means of such aspects as the emotional and social intelligence.
In everyday life, evaluation by IQ tests is used by many companies for staff selection, serves as an indicator for clinical diagnostics, while in academic circles it is correlated with age, sex, level of life, income, genetic factor, the level of happiness, and almost every new factor significant for psychology . There is a separate line of the study of the average IQ for different countries.
The first test to determine the level of intelligence appeared in 1905. Alfred Binet and Theodore Simo developed tests for students, which eventually became a pioneer among the methods to assess intelligence. Following this procedure, a large number of different tests and models of human intelligence were created.
Today’s most popular IQ tests are developments of Hans Eysenck, David Wechsler, John Raven, and Rudolf Amthauer. Despite the variety of tests, there is no standard stipulating a unified result determination method. Thus, the average IQ will be 90-109 points in Wechsler’s test, and 100-120 points in Eysenck’s.
|125||Ph.Ds||Those who have the average IQ level are likely to have average grades in school and are not among the best students. But in this case, those will be able to achieve great accomplishments at the appropriate level of effort.|
|105-110||Uncomplete higher education|
|100-105||Office and sales workers|
|100||School-leavers, qualified workers (for example, electric engineers)||
For example, there are a lot of people with average IQ among the Nobel Laureates. Gender is not related with IQ performance , but the relationship between criminal tendencies and indicators of intelligence can be traced.
It is interesting, that in 2006, there was composed a rating of countries with highest IQ.
|95||Enrolled in high school groups, but have not completed it|
|90-95||Workers of average qualification (e.g. tractor-drivers, factory workers)|
|90||Those, who have finished school without upper classes completion (8 years)|
|80-85||Those, who have not completed 8 years of school|
|75||Those, who have 50 % chance to go to upper classes of school|
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