Psychological structure of personality


In psychology, the concept of personality is one of the most important, since this science deals with the study of man as a subject of the social environment. It has long been established that every human organism is individual from a physiological and psychological point of view. The concept of individuality allows each person to be considered unique. However, this very concept comes into force only in the process of human interaction with other people.

By personality is meant exclusively a social being that is able to come into contact with other individuals. Personality characteristics tend to vary depending on the situation, but this concept is an indivisible structure. In psychology and psychiatry, the subject of study is precisely the personality, unlike other medical sciences, where the actions are directed at the physiology of man.

The psychological structure of the personality determines the qualities that are more characteristic of a particular person. The totality of such properties and parameters is a complete psychological picture of an individual. Theories that try to fully embrace the structure of the personality are created in a great variety. Some of them are immediately forgotten, and the majority continues to develop and improve. For psychology, the most basic is the basic model, which is based on the starting criteria that determine the personality:

  • Self-awareness. It is a person’s ability to realize his own “I” and his distinctive features. Self-consciousness confirms that the person of a person is one and stable.
  • The concept implies the presence of any major or priority goals and objectives of the individual. This also includes attitudes toward oneself, relatives, tastes, smells, work activities and other significant components.
  • Congenital quality, which is based on the predominance of processes of excitation and inhibition of the nervous system.
  • Partially hereditary, but mostly acquired property of personality, which determines the features of behaviour or response in a given situation.
  • Mental processes and conditions. This includes basic cognitive functions: sensation, perception, inferences and others.
  • It implies an innate predisposition of a person to a particular activity.
  • Experience of a psychological nature. The person is able to change and adapt to the changes in the world around him, as well as under the influence of experience. As you mature, values change, sometimes even tastes.

Intellectual abilities of the brain play not the least role in the formation of personality, and their development positively affects the person as a whole. Improve most of the brain functions with the BrainApps resource, which contains more than 100 games developed by professional psychologists.

Formation of personality types in psychology

Separation of personalities into types has been practised for a long time. People always try to establish a framework for scientific concepts and drive them into classification. For such a complex and structural concept, as a person, to choose the best options that fully characterize each person has still not been able to. In order to judge any person is recommended, relying immediately on several types from different classifications.

The most popular options for dividing a person’s personality into types:

  • Classification of temperaments according to Hippocrates. Includes 4 categories: sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholic and choleric. It has existed for many centuries but still enjoys wide demand, since it allows you to make a first impression of a person.
  • Characteristics of personality types according to Jung. One of the most optimal classifications, covering at once 4 personality characteristics, which are estimated by antonymic pairs.
  • Types of accentuations or psychotypes. These classifications correspond to each other, although they were compiled by different people. It should be noted that in the course of studies, individuals who were on the verge of a mental illness were assessed. Accentuation implies the upper limit of the norm of a particular reaction, which at any time can jump beyond the face.
  • One of the modern classifications, based on research by Jung.

A lot of classifications were created already in the 21st century, but none of them went beyond the limits of a certain psychological school. Worldwide fame does not have such divisions, but help psychologists navigate in specific clinical cases.

Types of personality of a person depending on the direction

First and foremost, the psychological structure of the individual implies the orientation of the person in himself or in the external world. This parameter in many ways allows one to assume or even determine the reaction of the individual in a given situation, thereby typing it according to other classifications.


A distinctive feature of introverts is the orientation to the inner world. They are characterized by feelings and doubts in themselves. Such people hardly have contact with the social environment, feel uncomfortable among the crowd, prefer solitude to noisy companies. In psychology, there is a direct dependence of personality types on this parameter.

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The orientation to the outside world is characteristic of extroverts. Such people do not just like to be among people, the social factor is the most important need. Extraverts need contact with individuals and constant communication. They are open emotionally and psychologically, so they easily flow into the society.

In modern society you will not find people who can be attributed to a specific type of orientation. Pure extroverts and introverts are extremely rare and often are not a variant of the norm.

Types of personality in accordance with the temperament of a person

The distribution of personality types in psychology always begins with temperament. This parameter has been known since the time of Hippocrates, who first described four variants of human response. Since then, the definition of temperament has been slightly modernized, but the essence has remained the same.

There are 4 types of people depending on the temperament:

  • Phlegmatic. Here the processes of inhibition predominate over-reactivity. Phlegmaticians respond heavily to external stimuli, are emotionally stable, closed. Among the positive qualities is allocated perseverance and high work capacity. The direction of personality is introvert.
  • Choleric. In this case, the reactivity processes prevail over the inhibition. The person is inclined to respond excessively brightly to the slightest stimuli. Choleric people heavily switch from one case to another, but they have stable interests. The direction of personality is more of an extrovert, but it depends on the specific case.
  • Sanguine. The equilibrium of the processes of reactivity and inhibition is noted, so the person reacts vividly to positive and negative factors. Sanguine emotionally open, active and resourceful, and at the right time they know how to restrain themselves. The direction of personality is extrovert.
  • Melancholic. Among all the variants of the person’s personality, melancholics have the lowest reactivity, but excessively high sensitivity. The combination of these qualities leads to a painful perception of minimal stimuli. The working capacity of melancholics is reduced, and assiduity is minimal. They tend to doubt themselves and throw things they started. Personality orientation – introvert.

Types of personality types by Jung

The well-known psychologist K. G. Jung developed one of the most accurate classifications of a person’s personality, which until now is used by most psychologists and psychiatrists. His approach involves evaluating the individual according to 8 characteristics, which are arranged in pairs with the opposite meaning. For example, one of the items of classification is the definition of extraversion or introversion of a person. Another 6 criteria are combined as follows: irrationality and rationality, ethics and logic, intuition and sensorics. Determining the psychological structure of a particular person, experts find out the approximations of a person to one of the parameters of the pair, and after that leave a complete picture of the psyche of the individual.

Irrationality and rationality

Irrationals perceive reality only in fact, without thinking about the past or the future. They quickly adapt to changes in the environment and make decisions based on current facts, but not on experience. Such people are able to get out of unexpected quandaries, activating brain activity and quickly finding the right solution.

Such personality types as rationals are people who rely on the firm life principles, experience, successes and downfall of other people. This behaviour causes the slow adaptation of the rationals to the changed conditions. However, in a stable environment, they are able to quickly make a decision and give an answer to the situation, since they do not analyze events continuously, but use a ready-made reaction pattern. Rationales can develop the speed of thinking with the help of special BrainApps games.

Logic and ethics

One of the options for the personality of modern man is ethics. Individuals of this type adhere to established dogma and moral principles. They are inclined to express themselves in everyday speech, embellishing reality.

Logicians assess the situation objectively, focusing on facts. Each case, they evaluate separately and do not choose a typical solution for all options. The logic of logic is not developed enough, because of what people of these types interact poorly with each other.

Sensory and intuition

The intuitive perception of reality is weak enough. Such persons are predisposed to distraction and uncertainty. They constantly hover in the past, they make assumptions about the future, but they are not enough for the present. In order to enhance the ability to fully appreciate the reality of reality will help special articles in the BrainApps blog, and the improvement of attention is achieved by passing simple and interesting games.

People like sensorics perceive reality in the present, so they live with sensations. They clearly perceive themselves, they penetrate deeper into the world around them. Their sensitivity is directed not only to mental matters, but also to physiological needs.

Types of accentuations or psycho-types

In psychology psychotypic concepts of personality are widely used, which to some extent testify to the presence of borderline deviations. Each person has an accentuation that is developed in one way or another and at any time can develop into a serious problem.

There are the following types of accentuations in humans:

  • Cycloid type (biphasic or cyclical mood swings from bad to good, unstable interests)
  • Labile type of personality (quick and uncontrollable mood changes, which in psychology call rapid switching, the change of emotions cannot be predicted even by the person himself);
  • Asthenic type (closed and serious person with a characteristic asthenic appearance, differs stubbornness and poor adaptation to volatile conditions);
  • Sensitive option (high demands on yourself and others, impressionability and increased susceptibility);
  • Psychasthenic type of personality (characterized by an increased emotional rejection of responsibility, in psychology they are noted as reliable and judicious people);
  • The schizoid variant (in the first place is non-standard thinking, however, its sequence is practically absent);
  • Conformal type (completely adjusted to the environment and hate change);
  • Unstable option (rejection of labour activity with a craving for idle existence without control);
  • Hysteroid (requires increased attention to itself, because of what is inclined to demonstrative behaviour);
  • Epileptoid type (restrained personality with outbursts of anger, in everything likes clarity and certainty);
  • Hyperthymic (stable positive mood, openness and high energy).

The psychology of the personality of each person is a complex branched structure. Even high-skilled specialists will not be able to determine all of its branches. Insufficient understanding of the device of brain work causes the continuous emergence of new theories and classifications that positively prove themselves in practice before the first non-typable case.

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